Morphogenesis of the Vertebreas (book)

 Amazon,com logo

Morphogenesis of the Vertebrates

by Torrey, Theodore W. & Alan Feduccia 

5th Ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, NY. page 167. 1988

“Ovarian Hormones and the Estrus Cycle. A moment’s reflection on the events so far described, and charted in Figure 10-4, will reveal that the cyclical events in the ovary and endometrium are neatly coordinated. Each developmental circumstance in one is timed with the other. It has long been established that this timing is controlled by chemical agents circulating in the blood stream, viz. hormones. The total picture of the kinds, activities, and chemistry of these hormones is exceedingly complex, and despite many years of study all the facts are still not in. The operations of the essential performers in this physiological interplay are fairly clear however, and to these we must now return. Let us begin with the ovary.

Recall that as an accompaniment of the growth and maturation of the follicle during proestrus, the enlarging follicle cavity, or atrium, becomes filled with a fluid. This fluid has been demonstrated to contain a hormone called estradiol (It should be remarked, parenthetically, that estradiol is only one of several closely related chemical substances which collectively are known as estrogens.) Estradiol is poured into the ovarian circulation and from there is distributed over the body, including the uterus and other regions of the female tract. Appropriate tests have shown that it is estradiol which initiates the histological differentiation of the endometrium. Estradiol also promotes the buildup of mating desire, which reaches its peak at estrus. It is during estrus, of course, that the follicle ordinarily ruptures, freeing the ovum and at the same time releasing a maximum amount of estradiol, which incites maximal sexual activity.” 

What does all that gobbledygook mean? In short,, it says that right before a woman’s body releases an fallopian egg, her brain releases the hormone ESTRADIOL and makes her want to engage in sexual activity. 

********** REALWORLDSOCIOLOGY.COM **********


Fascinating Facts About Testosterone

by Karla Jennings




When Joan’s muscle aches – the result of an early hysterectomy – became disabling, she asked her doctor for help. He prescribed the male hormone testosterone. But after just a few weeks on the medication, Joan discovered an astonishing side effect: Testosterone not only relieved her pain but it also boosted her once-normal libido to an X-rated level.

horny woman 2

“Now I know what it’s like to be a nymphomaniac,” she says. “I’d walk down the street and wonder what everybody looked like naked … what they’d be like.” But her sexual intensity had a down side. Both she and her husband found it unnerving. “He couldn’t keep up with me,” says Joan. She couldn’t even keep up with herself. “It became an inconvenience,” she confesses.

“If you could turn it on just on Friday nights, it would be nice. But to think about sex all the time, every hour …. I didn’t enjoy it.”

Yet some women, particularly those who’ve experienced early menopause and those with low or nonexistent sex drives, are willing to endure the side effects in order to reclaim their sexuality – to feel once again the longings that testosterone therapy may provide.

Hormones: Sexual Chemistry … But what exactly are hormones? They’re the body chemicals that regulate everything from strength and growth to moods and sexual development.

With half a century of research under their belts since then, you’d think scientists could agree whether testosterone can restore a woman’s libido. Not so.  … New evidence increasingly suggests, however, that testosterone can enrich a woman’s sexuality.

She believes such treatment has been virtually ignored by the medical community because of age-old prejudices about female sexuality. “If women complain of having reduced sexual desire, the prevailing attitude has been, “So what?’” says Sherwin. “But if men do, it’s considered a serious issue.”

She’s (Sherwin) found that women whose libidos dropped after surgically induced menopause experience increases in sexual desire, sexual arousal, and sexual fantasies when they receive the estrogen-testosterone preparation but not when given the estrogen alone.

Most responses to the testosterone therapy, says Dr. Sonkin, have been dramatic. How dramatic? Sometimes too much so, Dr. Sonkin admits. “I’ve had husbands object to the frequency of their wives’ sexual demands,” he says. “On the other hand, some husbands are very happy about it!” The “Male” in female remember, all women have naturally occurring testosterone in their bodies.

“The high- testosterone women seemed to be more active,” she says.


SEX is on the most basic level to ensure survival of the species. Do you think Mother Nature is going to take chances on humans being in charge of reproduction? She will definitely have a say in the matter. I’ll give you 7 BILLION reasons to trust me on this. 

What these articles are saying is that Mother Nature WANTS humans to reproduce; the future of the species depends on it. There is a reason sex is on the bottom of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. men’s sexuality works akin to being hungry; only in reverse. When a person’s stomach is empty, Nature sends out a signal to eat: hunger pangs. If that person doesn’t heed Mother Nature’s signal, she will turn up the signal. Pretty soon that person will eat almost anything to make the hunger pangs go away (e.g. hungry people eating out of garbage bins). Men’s sexuality is the same process in reverse. Whenever a man has too much sperm in their testicles, Mother Nature sends a signal to release it: the man gets horny. And if the man doesn’t heed Mother Nature’s signal, she will turn up the signal; he will begin to view formerly not-so-attractive women as more attractive (alcohol helps Mother Nature). He will take more “chances” with women he previously would have had only had a passing interest. Then once the sex act is completed, and his sperm are released, his interest in that sexual partner will wane considerably. The man isn’t necessarily being rude or mean, he has merely lost interest (Or should we say Mother Nature has helped him lose interest?). So put simply: humans are going to have sex. 

Sometimes I am baffled by women when they comment that “men always want to have sex.” Duh!

horny male

When I begin my lecture series on sexuality and society, I ask, “Who has a stronger sex drive, men or women?” Almost invariably, and with few exceptions, the class agrees that MALES have a stronger sex drive. Then I ask the question, “Who has a more FREQUENT sex drive?” Thinking that this is the same question asked in a different manner, the consensus is again on MALES having the more frequent sex drive. Yet after we discuss the information presented at the beginning of this article, the class comes to a near consensus that it is indeed the FEMALES who have the STRONGEST sex drive and the MALES who have the more FREQUENT sex drive. Frequency and intensity are too different matters. Frequency is how often the urge manifests itself. Intensity refers to the strength (low – high) of the urge. Males have a very frequent urge; hence the “men always want to have sex” comment. However, during estrus, or for about 48 hours when estradiol is released into their bloodstream, women have an intense sex drive!  I’ve seen this in my female friends while hanging out. During this period (estrus), they are continually commenting on cacti, utility poles, etc, all phallic symbols. However, when they are not in this period, these comments decrease significantly. Again, there is a difference between FREQUENCY and INTENSITY.

The reason Mother Nature “arranges” life in this manner is for the following reason. Females may only be interested in mating for these two days. If she waited for human being to “get along” or to be in love in order to engage in sex, she may be making a poor bet on the survival; of the human species. Hence, she motives humans along her lines. So during those two days, how hard is it to find a willing male to have sex with? The males are almost always willing. Hence the overlap. During that 48 hour period, she ensures that there will be “interested” males.

Pool boy

Sex research also has discovered how Mother Nature uses hormones in other ways similar to the one described above. Psychologists couldn’t understand why happily-married women divulged that they had an intense urge to have sex with the pool boy, yet seemed confused with themselves because for the most part, they were happily married.


Then researchers found out that about four years after the birth of their first child, this phenomenon began to manifest itself. The reasoning was that Mother Nature cares about reproduction and about survival. She isn’t in the business of morality. If the mother has a second child from another man, the second child will receive the immunity of all four of the participants: the first baby’s immunity code; the mother’s immunity code, the first father’s immunity code and the second father’s immunity code. This ensures more chances of survival for that second baby.

human sperm 5

Another nugget of wisdom comes from research on male sperm. We learned in Dr Witham’s course at Arizona State University that for many years, researchers labeled sperm with distinctly curved tails as abnormal. They figured these sperm didn’t develop to full capacity and were ejaculated prematurely.


However, researchers found out that these types of curve-tailed sperm tended to hook together like the barrel of monkeys toys and thus formed a barrier to another mate’s sperm.  

sperm 1

Sperm Barrier 

barrel of monkeys 7

The barrier produced by the curve-tailed sperm make the first mate’s sperm more likely to reproduce its genes: nature’s ultimate goal. 

human sperm 7

This logic called into question whether or not monogamy is “natural.


As with nature, I’m not making any moral judgment here. I realize that some people will become somewhat upset with the notion that monogamy is probably not natural. After all, that’s how they were socialized; and as we know, socialization is a powerful force. Yet if I play along with the status quo, and only write what is politically correct, I will make my brand of sociology more and more like the brand coming out of academia: missing half the truth. It’s important that we come to terms with how social life is and not how social life “should be.” These two paradigms aren’t compatible if we are to learn about real life. So the next time you someone gets upset over issues of sexuality, bear in mind that Mother Nature has a different conception (pun intended) than do politically correct human beings. Plus, the next time you think badly about a male wanting to have sex “all the time”, well… keep in mind Mother Nature’s modus operandi.

smiley face 2



Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *